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Artificial Intelligence (AI) & Machine learning

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is generally regarded as a functional system that can mimic functions that are associated with human intelligence, such as learning, reasoning, pattern recognition and problem solving. By feeding an AI-system data (for instance from sensors or human collected data) they can react independently. Machine Learning (ML) is associated with AI, because some AI systems can acquire new knowledge, thereby improving their overall performance and functionality. Techniques that are sometimes used in AI are neural networks and genetic algoritms.

AI and ML are already in use in a wide variety of domains, including the health sector, the military sector and the financial sector. In the military sector, experiments are conducted with the application of AI and ML in military machine. By using AI and ML, these military machines can analyse and select probable targets, and consequently gain more information and knowledge about selecting future targets. However, such experiments, where AI/ML machines can make independent decisions and gain additional information and knowledge without any human interference, raise ethical discussions about the use of AI and ML (sometimes negatively framed as ‘killer robots’). With the increasing development of AI, the implementation of ML in those systems, and the increased involvement of AI in our society, ethical issues are therefore taken into consideration. AI and ML are also used in cybersecurity, for instance recognising behavioral patterns of both humans, network traffic and machines to detect anomalies, adapting to threat factors, automating Security Operations Centres or collecting threat intelligence. Threat actors such as cybercriminals also use AI and ML to bypass security measures.

Related keywords: automated machines, automated learning, human in the loop, human out of the loop, smart city application, automated decision-making, speech recognition