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Quantum computing

Quantum computing is the use of quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform computations. Computations include all types and forms of (mathematical) calculations. Computers that perform quantum computations are known as quantum computers. Quantum computers are believed to be able to solve certain computational problems substantially faster than classical computers. Quantum phenomena can also be used for quantum networks and quantum encryption for instance. The security topics associated with quantum technologies include the breaking of current day encryption, the striving of nations for quantum dominance leading to tension and conflict, impossibility to break quantum encryption or eavesdrop on a quantum connection, higher computational power to do for instance video analysis and risk modelling for security. 

There are several models of quantum computers and/or quantum computing systems. The most widely used model is the quantum circuit. Quantum circuits are based on a quantum bit, or "qubit", which is somewhat analogous to the bit in classical computation. Despite ongoing experimental progress since the late 1990s, most researchers believe that zero-fault quantum computing is not achievable yet. However, in recent years (2021), investment into quantum computing research has increased in both the public and private sector.

Related Keywords: integer factorisation, post-quantum cryptography, supercomputer